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Desertification Indicator System for Mediterranean Europe

1. Definition



Brief definition

The value added per unit of labour input for agriculture, industry and services.

Unit of measure


2. Position within the logical framework DPSIR

Type of Indicator

Driving Force

3. Target and political pertinence


The indicator measures the labour productivity by sector and contributes to the definition of the socio-economic context of the area affected by desertification.

Importance with respect to desertification

This indicator reflects the economic capacity to implement measures to combat against desertification.

International Conventions and agreements


Secondary objectives of the indicator

The indicator represents a fundamental tool for national decision- makers, showing which sectors yield relatively high added value per unit of labour input.

4. Methodological description and basic definitions

Definitions and basic concepts

The added value of each sector (agriculture, industry and services) at market prices is divided into the units of employment of each sector.

Added value is the net production in a sector after having totalled all production and subtracted intermediate consumption.

The "International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities" is adopted to identify the sectors.

Added value in agriculture measures production from the farming sector (ISIC division 1-5) less the value of intermediate entries. Agriculture covers the added value from farming proper, and also forestry, hunting and fishing.

Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes production from manufacturing (ICIS divisions 15-37). It includes the added values from mining industries, the manufacturing sector, the building industry, electricity water and gas.

Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99. These include added value from wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport and public services (financial, professional and personal) such as education, health and housing. The costs of bank services, entry fees and all statistical anomalies noted by national compilers in addition to the anomalies due to re-scaling are included.

Employment in agriculture, industry and services measures the active population in the agriculture, industry and services. Each sector is defined adopting the same criteria used to measure the added value.

Benchmarks Indication of the values/ranges of value

I° range: < Local Mean -St. Dev.
II° range: >Local Mean - St. Dev. < Local Mean
III° range: > Local Mean < Local Mean + St. Dev.
IV° range: > Local Mean + St. Dev

Methods of measurement

See Definitions and basic concepts.

Limits of the indicator

The indicator reflects all the imperfections in measuring input and output of the sector, for example in some services sectors the productivity may be low because estimates of real output are based on input measures (such as employment). The indicator does not measure the informal economy (see the limits illustrated for GDP and unemployment).

Linkages with other indicators

There are close linkages between this indicator and other demographic and social indicators, such as GDP per capita, Unemployment rate.

5. Evaluation of data needs and availability

Data required to calculate the indicator

The added value for market prices of agriculture, industry and services; the units of employment of each sector.

Data sources

National statistical offices and statistical publications.

Availability of data from national and international sources

Apart from national sources and publications, other sources also include data on national accounts from Eurostat, World Bank and OECD.

The measurements of the labour force are defined in the International Labour Office (ILO)

6. Institutions that have participated in developing the indicator

Main institutions responsible


Other contributing organizations

Universities of Basilicata, Lisbon, Murcia, Athens, Amsterdam, Leeds

7. Additional information



Other references

Sources and Methods: Labour Statistics, Volumes 3 and 5, ILO, Geneva, 1991 and 1990, currently updated.


Contacts Name and address

University of Basilicata
Prof Giovanni Quaranta
email: quaranta@unibas.it