Documents

Over the years, the JRC has produced many publications. These are found in this section. They have been sub-divided in various categories (see Subcategory buttons below). All more than 440 documents can also be inspected irrespective of the category (see 'All documents' below).

Publications in Journals include more than 280 published papers from the Soil Group in the JRC. Most of the papers refer to the last 7 years (2013-2020). In many cases the papers document the datasets published in ESDAC. Almost all the publications are Open Access. 

 

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Guidelines for the use of native mosses, transplanted mosses and soils in assessing organic and inorganic contaminant fallout
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Guidelines for the use of native mosses, transplanted mosses and soils in assessing organic and inorganic contaminant fallout These guidelines on the use of mosses are of strategic importance in that they make it possible to harmonize the indications obtained from differing environments in terms of extent and, thereby, to compare them with results obtained using other methods. Cenci, R. (2008). European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, EUR 23292-EN, 33 pp. ISBN: 978-92-79-08719-6, ISSN: 1018-5593 Key words: mosses, soils, dioxins, heavy metals, radioisotopes. Download report: (Size: 2.2 MB) Preview FrontPage : Linee guida per l' utilizzo di muschi indigeni, muschi trapiantati e suoli per valutare le ricadute di contaminanti organici e inorganici. Scaricare il documento: (Taglia: 2.2 MB)

Soil Degradation and Soil Quality in Western Europe: Current situation and future perspectives
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

The extent and causes of chemical, physical and biological degradation of soil, and of soil loss, vary greatly in different countries in Western Europe. The objective of this review paper is to examine these issues and also strategies for soil protection and future perspectives for soil quality evaluation, in light of present legislation aimed at soil protection. Agriculture and forestry are the main causes of many of the above problems, especially physical degradation, erosion and organic matter loss. Land take and soil sealing have increased in recent decades, further enhancing the problems. In agricultural land, conservation farming, organic farming and other soil-friendly practices have been seen to have site-specific effects, depending on the soil characteristics and the particular types of land use and land users. No single soil management strategy is suitable for all regions, soil types and soil uses. Except for soil contamination, specific legislation for soil protection is lacking in Western Europe. The Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection in the European Union has produced valuable information and has encouraged the development of networks and databases. However, soil degradation is addressed only indirectly in environmental policies and through the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union, which promotes farming practices that support soil conservation. Despite these efforts, there remains a need for soil monitoring networks and decision-support systems aimed at optimization of soil quality in the region. The pressure on European soils will continue in the future, and a clearly defined regulatory framework is needed. 

https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/7/1/313

Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Soil Data Analysis
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Evaluation of BioSoil Demonstration Project - Soil Data Analysis The BioSoil demonstration Project was initiated under the Forest Focus-Scheme (Regulation (EC) Nr. 2152/2003) concerning the monitoring of forests and environmental interactions in the Community, and aimed to broaden the scope of previous forest monitoring activities (on atmospheric pollution and forest fires) to the fields of soil characteristics and biodiversity indicators. The evaluation of the project concentrated on analysing a selected number of parameters submitted by NFCs for estimating the distribution and changes in soil organic carbon and the performance of the WRB classification. Author(s): R. Hiederer, E. Michéli, T. Durrant, 2011 – 155 pp. – EUR 24729 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-19320-0, Doi 110.2788/56105 Download report: (Size: 3.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 11/02/2011

The Bio Bio Project.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

The Bio Bio Project. R. Cenci . FRESENIUS ENVIRONMENTAL BULLETIN, August 2008, Volume 17, Pages 1107-1109 The Pavia Project had as principal objective: the evalua-tion of the quality and health of soil in Pavia Province and included a study to appraise the eventual differences in soil health, that have resulted from different management prac-tices: organic farming, animal manure and mineral fertiliz-ers and soil receiving sewage sludge. Soil health was appraised by studying physical and chemical properties coupled with biodiversity and bio- indication concepts, using some organisms and/or their “products” that are present under the three main manage-ment systems. Twelve international organizations partici-pated in the BIO-BIO Project. More information about the Article

Risk Mapping of Landslides in New Member States
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Risk Mapping of Landslides in New Member States Every year landslide activity causes significant economic loss as well as loss of human life. In the view of PECO country experts , landslides represent a high risk in Romania, a medium risk in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia, and a low risk in Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania and Poland. Author(s): Róbert Jelínek, Javier Hervás and Maureen Wood, 2007. Risk Mapping of Landslides in New Member States. EUR 22950 EN, European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 38pp. ISSN 1018-5593 Download report: (Size: 2.2 MB) Preview FrontPage :

PAN-EUROPEAN SOIL EROSION RISK ASSESSMENT: THE PESERA MAP VERSION 1 OCTOBER 2003 Explanation of: Special Publication Ispra 2004 No.73 S.P.I.04.73
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Michael J. Kirkby et al.

Analysis of Mosses and Soils for Quantifying Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sicily: A Multivariate and Spatial Analytical Approach
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Analysis of Mosses and Soils for Quantifying Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sicily: A Multivariate and Spatial Analytical Approach GRAMATICA, Paola, BATTAINI, Francesca, GIANI, Elisa, PAPA. Ester, JONES, Robert J.A., PREATONI, Damiano and CENCI, Roberto M. (2006). Analysis of Mosses and Soils for Quantifying Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sicily: A Multivariate and Spatial Analytical Approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 13(1), 28-36. Keywords: GIS; heavy metals; mosses; multivariate analysis; principal component analysis; soil Access the research paper: Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Assessment of Mercury-Polluted Soils Adjacent to an Old Mercury-Fulminate Production Plant.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Assessment of Mercury-Polluted Soils Adjacent to an Old Mercury-Fulminate Production Plant. M. Camps Arbestain, L. Rodríguez-Lado, M. Bao, and F. Macías . Applied and Environmental Soil Science Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 387419, 8 pages doi:10.1155/2009/387419 Mercury contamination of soils and vegetation close to an abandoned Hg-fulminate production plant was investigated. Maximum concentrations of Hg (>6.5?g kg-1 soil) were found in the soils located in the area where the wastewater produced during the washing procedures carried out at the production plant used to be discharged. DOI: 10.1155/2009/387419 Access the paper or contact the Author

Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation in Europe: Analysis of a High-Resolution Climate Change Scenario
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation in Europe: Analysis of a High-Resolution Climate Change Scenario Future climate change is generally believed to lead to an increase in climate variability and in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. In this report we analyse the changes in variability and extremes in temperature and precipitation in Europe by the end of this century, based on high-resolution (12 km) simulations of the regional climate model HIRHAM Danker, R. And R. Hiederer (2008) Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation in Europe: Analysis of a High-Resolution Climate Change Scenario. EUR 23291 EN. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Luxembourg. 66 pp. ISSN 1018-5593 Download report: (Size: 8.3 MB) Preview FrontPage :

Wind Erosion in Europe.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Wind Erosion in Europe. Funk,R. Reuter,H.I. (2006) Wind Erosion in Europe. In Soil Erosion in Europe edited by J.Boardman und J. Poesen, Publisher J.Wiley Provides a unique and comprehensive assessment of soil erosion throughout Europe, an important aspect to control and manage if landscapes are to be sustained for the future. Soil Erosion in Europe primarily focuses on current issues, area specific soil erosion rates, on and off-site impacts, government responses, soil conservation measures, and soil erosion risk maps. More information about the Book

Towards an European Soil Data Center in support of the EU thematic strategy for Soil Protection.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Towards an European Soil Data Center in support of the EU thematic strategy for Soil Protection. B. Houskova, L. Montanarella, 2007. Published by Romanian Soil Science 2007, NR.1 pp. 3-17. The establishment of an European Soil Data Centre by the European Commission in support of the new EU thematic strategy for soil protection can certainly contribute to raising awareness in the general public of the importance of soil protection. Keywords: soil protection, EU thematic strategy, European soil data center. Access the paper

What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon in boreo‑temperate systems?
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

Soils contain the largest stock of organic carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems and changes in soil C stocks may significantly affect atmospheric CO2. A significant part of soil C is present in cultivated soils that occupy about 35 % of the global land surface. Agricultural intensification has led to practices that may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC), and agricultural management has the potential to be a powerful tool for climate change mitigation and increased soil fertility through SOC sequestration. Here, we systematically map evidence relating to the impacts of agricultural management on SOC in arable systems of the warm temperate and snow climate zones (subset of temperate and continental climates:

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13750-015-0049-0

Policy relevance of Critical Zone Science
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

Critical Zone Science extends the definition of soils beyond the traditional pedogenetic processes. The critical zone, as the interface linking the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the biosphere matches well the concepts that have recently emerged, especially in Europe, in relation to the development of a new soil protection policy for the European Union. The European Union (EU) Soil Thematic Strategy, as presented by the European Commission in 2006, intends to address the protection of soil functions that go far beyond the limited definition of soils as the first 2-m of the surface structured in pedogenetic horizons. The seven functions that the EU wants to protect (biomass production, buffering and filtering of water, biodiversity pool, source of raw materials, support for housing and infrastructure, carbon sink and archive of cultural heritage) require considering soils in a much broader context. The full unconsolidated material from the surface to bedrock has to be included if we want to fully understand and manage the seven soil functions considered of policy relevance by the EU. Soil science needs to go beyond traditional pedological studies and enlarge its scope by including a full understanding of the critical zone. In this sense Critical Zone Science can be considered the perfect match with the emerging concepts of the EU Soil Thematic Strategy. Indeed this reflects the recent evolution from the historical relevance of soils science in the framework of a single soil function, namely agricultural production, toward a shift of the attention of the importance of soils also in other policy areas beyond agriculture, including the water policy, the climate change policy, the biodiversity policy, the energy resources policy, the cultural policy, etc. At global level, Critical Zone Science community can contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals recent debates. A new scientific paradigm for soil science is needed if we want to respond to these emerging needs from new soil related policy areas. This new paradigm is Critical Zone Science and is adequately responding to these new needs going far beyond the traditional agricultural view on soils.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264837715002288

Modelling soil erosion at European scale: towards harmonization and reproducibility
Resource Type: Documents, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

Soil erosion by water is one of the most widespread forms of soil degradation. The loss of soil as a result of erosion can lead to decline in organic matter and nutrient contents, breakdown of soil structure and reduction of the water-holding capacity. Measuring soil loss across the whole landscape is impractical and thus research is needed to improve methods of estimating soil erosion with computational modelling, upon which integrated assessment and mitigation strategies may be based. Despite the efforts, the prediction value of existing models is still limited, especially at regional and continental scale, because a systematic knowledge of local climatological and soil parameters is often unavailable. A new approach for modelling soil erosion at regional scale is here proposed. It is based on the joint use of low-data-demanding models and innovative techniques for better estimating model inputs. The proposed modelling architecture has at its basis the semantic array programming paradigm and a strong effort towards computational reproducibility. An extended version of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) has been implemented merging different empirical rainfall-erosivity equations within a climatic ensemble model and adding a new factor for a better consideration of soil stoniness within the model. Pan-European soil erosion rates by water have been estimated through the use of publicly available data sets and locally reliable empirical relationships. The accuracy of the results is corroborated by a visual plausibility check (63% of a random sample of grid cells are accurate, 83% at least moderately accurate, bootstrap p ≤ 0.05). A comparison with country-level statistics of pre-existing European soil erosion maps is also provided.

https://nhess.copernicus.org/articles/15/225/2015/

Land take and food security: assessment of land take on the agricultural production in Europe
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Soil is a multifunctional, non-renewable natural resource for Europe as clearly expressed in the European Union (EU) Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231). Soil carries out multiple functions, including the support of food production. Urban development and its associated land take poses a major threat to soil and could have significant effects on agricultural production. This paper aims to evaluate the potential productivity losses in European agriculture due to land-take processes between 1990 and 2006. Agricultural land take was calculated using CORINE Land Cover maps of 1990, 2000 and 2006. For 21 of the 27 EU member states, agricultural land take was computed to be 752,973 ha for 1990–2000 and 436,095 ha for 2000–2006, representing 70.8% and 53.5%, respectively, of the total EU land take for these periods. The impact of this land take on the production capabilities of the agricultural sector for the period 1990–2006 for 19 of the 21 states was estimated to be equivalent to a loss of more than six million tonnes of wheat. The paper demonstrates that Europe's intense urbanisation has a direct impact on its capability to produce food.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09640568.2014.899490 

An Open European Soil Portal (OGC User December 2005)
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

An Open European Soil Portal (OGC User December 2005) Lance McKee with Marc Van Liedekerke and Panos Panagos of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, I-21020 Ispra (VA) - Italy . © 2005 Published by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) - OGC User December 2005. The European Soil Portal, implementing the OpenGIS Web Map Server (WMS) Specification, came online recently to serve a wide variety of professional, business and academic users. Preview Paper:

Characterization of Ferricyanide-Humate Complexes by a Voltammetric Approach
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Characterization of Ferricyanide-Humate Complexes by a Voltammetric Approach The industrial sites that deal with the production and/or use of cyanide in their processes often have contamination problems in soils and water. R.M Cenci et Al. Soil and Sediment Contamination, 2001 10(5), pages 483 - 496 Look for the article: Soil and Sediment Contamination, 2001 10(5), pages 483 - 496

Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Italy.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

VAN DER KNIJFF, J.M., JONES, R.J.A. and MONTANARELLA, L. (1999). EUR 19022 EN, 52pp.

Approaches for Delineating Areas Susceptible to Landslides in the Framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Conference Publications
Year: 2015

Approaches for Delineating Areas Susceptible to Landslides in the Framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy. Günther, A., Reichenbach, P., Hervás, J., 2008. Proceedings of the First World Landslide Forum, Tokyo, 18-21 November 2008, pp. 235-238. Download the Paper: Approaches for Delineating Areas Susceptible to Landslides in the Framework of the European Soil Thematic Strategy

Spatial prediction of soil properties at European scale using the LUCAS database as an harmonization layer
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Spatial prediction of soil properties at European scale using the LUCAS database as an harmonization layer The Land Use and Cover Area frame Statistical survey (LUCAS) is a project, initiated by Eurostat, aimed at the collection of harmonized data about the state of land use/ land cover over the extent of European Union (EU). The survey, initiated in 2006, started with the classification, through photo-interpretation, of 106 georeferenced points placed at the nodes of a 2km grid covering EU. Among these 2105 were selected for validation and a topsoil survey was conducted at about 10% of these sites. Topsoil sampling locations were selected as to be representative of European landscape using a latin hypercube stratified random sampling, taking into account CORINE land cover 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM and its derived slope, aspect and curvature. In this study we will discuss how the LUCAS database can be used to map soil properties at continental scale over the geographical extent of Europe. Several soil properties (namely: soil texture, pH, carbon and nitrogen content) were predicted using hybrid approaches like regression kriging. Regression models were fitted using, along other variables, remotely sensed data coming from the MODIS sensor. The high temporal resolution of MODIS allowed detecting changes in the vegetative response due to soil properties, which can then be used to map soil features distribution. We will also discuss the prediction of intrinsically collinear variables like soil texture which required the use of models capable of dealing with multivariate constrained dependent variables like Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines. Cross validation of the fitted models proved that the LUCAS dataset constitutes a good sample for mapping puropses leading to regression R2 between 0.4 and 0.7 for different soil properties and normalised errors between 4 and 10%. Finally a strategy about how to use LUCAS as an harmonization layer to attune heterogeneous soil information sources is presented and discussed Access the paper Last Update: 14/10/2014

Research needs in support of the European thematic strategy for soil protection (Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 23, No. 10–11, 2004)
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Research needs in support of the European thematic strategy for soil protection (Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 23, No. 10–11, 2004) Winfried E.H. Blum, Jurgen Busing, Luca Montanarella. © 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd. The conclusion that soil research should be integrated into comprehensive research areas (e.g., including water and sediments) in order to manage natural resources in Europe. Look for the research paper: Elsevier Publisher

Multiple regression analysis of As ground-water hazard and assessment of As-attributable human health risks in Chakdha Block, West Bengal.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Multiple regression analysis of As ground-water hazard and assessment of As-attributable human health risks in Chakdha Block, West Bengal. D. Mondal1, A. Hegan, L. Rodriguez-Lado, M. Banerjee, A. K. Giri and D. A. Polya. Mineralogical Magazine; February 2008; v. 72; no. 1; p. 461-465; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2008.072.1.461 SOLUBLE inorganic As is toxic with both cancer and non-cancer endpoints. Of the 80 million people in West Bengal, 50 million are living in the nine As-affected districts with millions at risk from using water for drinking, cooking or irrigation (Chakraborti et al., 2004). An environmental tragedy is developing in West Bengal with an alarming number of cases of skin lesions (Guha Mazumder et al., 1998; Mukherjee et al., 2005), respiratory symptoms (von Ehrenstein et al., 2005), adverse pregnancy outcomes and infant mortality (von Ehrenstein et al., 2006) and neurological complications (Mukherjee et al., 2005) associated with ingestion of As-contaminated water. DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2008.072.1.437 Access the paper or contact the Author

Mapping Soil Properties for Europe - Spatial Representation of Soil Database Attributes
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Mapping Soil Properties for Europe - Spatial Representation of Soil Database Attributes The European Soil Database (ESDB) provides the most detailed and comprehensive set of data for soil properties with pan-European coverage. However, using the ESDB soil properties in combination with spatial applications is hampered by the structure of the database for soil typological attributes. In this study a layer of mapped typological units was used to resolve issues related to the database structure for the spatial representation of soil properties and to map key soil properties to standardized spatial layers. The information available from the ESDB tends to be more suited to characterise the site of a soil unit, including morphological conditions. The range of soil property data was extended by the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD), which provides more detailed information on soil properties. Combining data from both databases was achieved by processing the attributes in a database management system and then linking the output to a spatial reference layer and by transferring attributes to the spatial layer from each database and processing the data by spatial overlay functions of a Geographic Information System (GIS). Author(s) Hiederer, R. – Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union – 2013 – 47pp. – EUR26082EN Scientific and Technical Research series, ISSN 1831-9424, doi:10.2788/94128 Download report: (Size: 6 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 27/08/2013

Soil Resources of Mediterranean and Caucasus Countries
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Soil Resources of Mediterranean and Caucasus Countries This book is result of the workshop on "Extension of the European Soil Database" held in Izmir/Turkey on 14-15 May 2012. The country reports on the status of soil mapping and the development of national soil information systems were presented briefly and discussed in relation to the objective on extension of the European soil database and information system. The most recent extension studies cover Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan Cyprus, Egypt, Georgia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey this book features country chapters, with contributions from 13 of the above-mentioned countries. Editors(s) Yusuf Yigini, Panos Panagos, Luca Montanarella. Special thanks to the contributors: H. Ghazaryan (Armenia), A. Ismayilov (Azerbaijan), Z. Zomeni, A. Bruggeman (Cuprus), M.M. Kotb (Egypt), T.F. Urushadze, G.O. Ghambashidze (Georgia), A. Salih Mhaimeed (Iraq), O. Crouvi, R. Zaidenberg, M. Shapiro (Israel), M. H Al Ferihat (Jordan), T. Darwish (Lebanon), B. Nwer(Libya), Malta Environment and Planning Authority (Malta), B. Dudeen, W0 Abu Rmailah, M. Alsalimiya, M. Alamleh (Palestine), S. Senol, I. Bayramin (Turkey). – Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union – 2013 – 243pp. – EUR25988EN Scientific and Technical Research series, SSN 1831-9424, ISBN 978-92-79-30346-3, doi: 10.2788/91322 Download report: (Size: 17 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 03/06/2013

Tolerable Versus Actual Soil Erosion Rates in Europe.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Tolerable Versus Actual Soil Erosion Rates in Europe. Verheijen F, Jones R, Rickson J, Smith C. Tolerable Versus Actual Soil Erosion Rates in Europe. Earth-Science Reviews, Volume 94, Issues 1-4, May 2009, Pages 23-38 , doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2009.02.003 Erosion is a major threat to soil resources in Europe, and may impair their ability to deliver a range of ecosystem goods and services. This is reflected by the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which recommends an indicator-based approach for monitoring soil erosion. Defined baseline and threshold values are essential for the evaluation of soil monitoring data. Therefore, accurate spatial data on both soil loss and soil genesis are required, especially in the light of predicted changes in climate patterns, notably frequency, seasonal distribution and intensity of precipitation. Rates of soil loss have been measured, modelled or inferred for most types of soil erosion in a variety of landscapes, by studies across the spectrum of the Earth sciences. This paper reviews the concept of tolerable soil erosion and summarises current knowledge on rates of soil formation, which are then compared to rates of soil erosion by known erosion types, for assessment of soil erosion monitoring at the European scale. Access the paper Last Update: 26/04/2010

Land Quality and Land Use Information - in the European Union
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Land Quality and Land Use Information - in the European Union This monograph contains a selection of scientific papers presented on the conference on Land Quality and Land Use Information in the European Union, hold in Keszthely, Hungary. It covers topics related to various aspects of land quality including: concepts of assessment; evaluation of biomass productivity; bioindicators of land quality; quality assessment of degraded land; land use related data processing; INSPIRE; and the economic aspects of land quality. The aim of the conference was to facilitate the exchange of information and views among stakeholders involved in land management, land resources research and land use policy planning. This exchange of information contributes to an enhanced understanding on the role of land quality in rural systems and to progress the development of land information, land registries, land use planning and related services based on land quality on different levels; from farm to continental scales in Europe. Editors: Gergely Tóth and Tamás Németh, 2011 – 399 pp. – EUR 24590 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1831-9424, ISBN 978-92-79-17601-2, Doi 10.2788/40725 Download report: (Size: 8 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 06/09/2011

Soil Databases to support sustainable development.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, ESBN Research Reports
Year: 2015

Soil Databases to support sustainable development. Soil Information in the European Union: Belgium, Denmark, England-wales, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Nothern Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Spain. C. Le Bas and M. Jamagne (eds). EUR 16371 EN 149pp. (1996). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. Download report: (Size: 35 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 10/10/2011

SOil and TERrain (SOTER) database
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

An SRTM-based procedure to delineate Soter terrain units on 1: 1 and 1:5 Million scales. Technical report (2005) EUR 21571 EN. Endre Dobos, Joel Daroussin and Luca Montanarella

Report on the activities realized within the Service Level Agreement between JRC and EFSA
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Report on the activities realized within the Service Level Agreement between JRC and EFSA The activities realized in 2010 by JRC as support to the FATE and the ECOREGION EFSA PPR Working Groups are shortly described. For the FATE WG, the vast majority of data has been provided in 2009 during the first year of the Service Level Agreement (SLA), and in 2010 the daily weather data, for the six selected sites, were produced. All the data used for the scenario selection procedures, with additional data on land use-land cover, crop distribution, soil and climate parameters, will be made available for external user in first half of 2011. For the ECOREGION WG the analysis has been carried out for three Member States covering a North-South gradient from Finland, Germany to Portugal. Soil and weather data have been used for the characterisation of bio-geographic sampling sites, and for the implementation of the ecoregion model. Ecoregion maps were produced for earthworms and enchytraeids for Finland and Germany and revealed marked differences between the countries. The same approach has been applied also to Collembola and Isopoda, but for these two taxa led to a rather poor discrimination both between and within countries. Author(s):Ciro Gardi, Panos Panagos, Roland Hiederer, Luca Montanarella, Fabio Micale, 2011 – 38 pp. – EUR 24744 EN– Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-19521-1, Doi 10.2788/61018 Download report: (Size: 4.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 29/03/2011

Satellite remote sensing for soil mapping in Africa: An overview
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Satellite remote sensing for soil mapping in Africa: An overview Dewitte O., Jones A., Elbelrhiti H., Horion S., Montanarella L. Satellite remote sensing for soil mapping in Africa: An overview (2012) Progress in Physical Geography, 36 (4) , pp. 514-538. The protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance, particularly in the context of the uncertain impact of climate change and the increase pressure of the human activities. This situation requires a demand for up-to-date and relevant soil information at regional and continental scales. To provide timely and reliable information on soils at these scales, low-resolution spaceborne remote sensing offers an ideal support. Through a review of multispectral, thermal infrared, passive and active microwave imaging we show that sensors help in the delineation of soils themselves, as well as in the assessment of some of their key properties and threats such as water and wind erosion, landsliding and salinisation. However remote sensing imagery for mapping soil can be problematic if applied alone and often requires the use of ancillary data and field observations. Remote sensing is shown as being complementary to digital soil mapping. Access the paper: http://ppg.sagepub.com/content/36/4/514.abstract Last Update: 02/09/2013

Estimation du risque d’érosion en Italie.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

VAN DER KNIJFF, J.M., JONES, R.J.A. and MONTANARELLA, L. (1999). Traduit de l’Anglais par S. Christophe. EUR 19022 FR, 45pp.

Predicting the preservation of cultural artefacts and buried materials in soil
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015
This study identifies factors affecting the fate of buried objects in soil and develops a method for assessing where preservation of different materials and stratigraphic evidence is more or less likely in the landscape. The results inform the extent of the cultural service that soil supports by preserving artefacts from and information about past societies. They are also relevant to predicting the state of existing and planned buried infrastructure and the persistence of materials spread on land. Soils are variable and preserve different materials and stratigraphic evidence differently. This study identifies the material and soil properties that affect preservation and relates these to soil types; it assesses their preservation capacities for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Fe, Pb and bronze), ceramics, glass and stratigraphic evidence. Preservation of Au, Pb and ceramics, glass and phytoliths is good in most soils but degradation rates of other materials (e.g. Fe and organic materials) is strongly influenced by soil type. A method is proposed for using data on the distribution of soil types to map the variable preservation capacities of soil for different materials. This is applied at a continental scale across the EU for bones, teeth and shells, organic materials, metals (Cu, bronze and Fe) and stratigraphic evidence. The maps produced demonstrate how soil provides an extensive but variable preservation of buried objects.
 
 
Agricultural policy: Govern our soils
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015
ighty years ago, in 1935, soils were for the first time officially recognized as a limited national resource that should be responsibly managed. In the wake of the catastrophic erosion that caused the infamous Dust Bowl drought, the US government passed the Soil Conservation Act. “The history of every Nation is eventually written in the way in which it cares for its soil,” wrote President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
 
Roosevelt's act was largely successful. It encouraged farmers to apply sustainable management practices — such as tilling less, installing windbreaks, and planting along slope contours1. Between 1982 and 2007, soil erosion in US cropland declined by 43% (ref. 2). The history now being written in the world's soils is not so rosy. Every year, 75 billion tonnes of crop soil are lost worldwide to erosion by wind and water, and through agriculture; this costs about US$400 billion a year3. Only a few countries have national legislation protecting soil, including Germany and Switzerland4. Attempts at binding international legal agreements have so far failed.
 
This cannot go on. Soils are a limited natural resource, unequally divided between nations and people. They provide fertilizer for growing food; store and filter water; host rich ecosystems, including many little-known species; provide resources such as peat, sand, clay and gravel; and hold our cultural and historical memory in archaeological artefacts. The ground beneath our feet is a public good and service.

https://www.nature.com/news/agricultural-policy-govern-our-soils-1.18854

Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe This volume presents the results of a meeting of European experts held at the JRC, Ispra, Italy on 23-24 October 2007. The publication includes examples of landslide inventories and susceptibility, hazard and risk mapping in France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy and Spain, and discusses some harmonisation issues and criteria for mapping landslide susceptibility across Europe. It concludes with recommendations on a common methodology for landslide susceptibility mapping in Europe based on geographically-nested “Tier” approaches at various scales, from Europe-wide scale to regional and local scales. Hervás, J. (Ed.), 2007. Guidelines for Mapping Areas at Risk of Landslides in Europe. Proc. Experts Meeting, JRC, Ispra, Italy, 23-24 October 2007. JRC Report EUR 23093 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 53 pp. Download report: (Size: 28.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 11/10/2010

Ground Based SAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanner data for the analysis of the Formigal landslide; the GALAHAD project test site in the Spanish Pyrenees.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Conference Publications
Year: 2015

Ground Based SAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanner data for the analysis of the Formigal landslide; the GALAHAD project test site in the Spanish Pyrenees. Herrera, G., Ponce de León, D., Mulas, J., Llorente, M., Hervás, J., Noferini, L., Mecatti, D., Macaluso, G., Tamburini, A., Federici, P., 2007. 7th Geomatics Week, Barcelona, Spain, 20-23 February 2007, CD-ROM, 2 pp. Download the Article: Ground Based SAR and Terrestrial Laser Scanner data for the analysis of the Formigal landslide; the GALAHAD project test site in the Spanish Pyrenees.

Integration of the Soil Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1.000.000
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Integration of the Soil Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1.000.000 In order to extend the Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE) to the countries of Mediterranean Basin, the preparation of soil geographical database of Turkey at 1:1 million scales was initiated at the end of 2008. In the current report, the reader will be informed about the preparation of soil geographical database of Turkey compatible with European database and how the Turkish soil data have been integrated the European Soil Database. The implementation of this work has been achieved since we have built a common understanding and nomenclature of soils in Europe and Mediterranean region. A number of attributes have been transformed from local/regional/national soil datasets while some other attributes have been obtained from auxiliary datasets using remote sensing and GIS Techniques. Authors: Ece Aksoy, Panos Panagos, Luca Montanarella, Arwyn Jones (2010). Integration of the Soil Database of Turkey into European Soil Database 1:1.000.000. EUR 24295 EN. ISSN 1018-5593. ISBN 978-92-79-15306-8. DOI 10.2788/77892. 45 pp. Keywords: European Soil Database 1:1.000.000, Turkish Soil Data, GIS Techniques, Remote Sensing Download report: (Size: 5.6 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 30/03/2010

Methods to interpolate soil categorical variables from profile observations: Lessons from Iran
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Methods to interpolate soil categorical variables from profile observations: Lessons from Iran Hengl T., Toomanian N., Reuter H.I., Malakouti M.J. (2007). Published by Elsevier B.V. Abstract The paper compares semi-automated interpolation methods to produce soil-class maps from profile observations and by using multiple auxiliary predictors such as terrain parameters, remote sensing indices and similar. Access the paper or contact the Author T. Hengl for more information

Mapping Services in the European Soil Portal
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Mapping Services in the European Soil Portal Panagos, P., 2006. Mapping Services in the European Soil Portal Geo: International , Sept 2006 Volume 5 · Issue 8: 42-45 Online information systems are providing the valuable link between Europeans and the ground. Learn more about the soil. Look for the article: GeoConnexion: Defence and Geo-Intelligence

The need for harmonizing methodologies for assessing soil threats in Europe
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

The need for harmonizing methodologies for assessing soil threats in Europe van Beek C.L., Toth T., Hagyo A., Toth G., Recatala Boix L., Ano Vidal C., Malet J.P., (...), Oenema O. The need for harmonizing methodologies for assessing soil threats in Europe (2010) Soil Use and Management, 26 (3), pp. 299-309. Central to the EU thematic strategy for soil protection is that areas affected by soil degradation through erosion, soil organic matter (SOM) decline, compaction, salinization and landslides should be identified in a clear and consistent way. However, the current methodologies to achieve this often differ and this can result in different perceptions of risks amongst EU Member States. The aims of this paper are to: (i) assess the current status of assessment methodologies in Europe (EU27) associated with erosion, SOM decline, compaction, salinization and landslides and (ii) discuss the issues associated with harmonization of these methodologies throughout the EU27. The need for harmonization is assessed using the relative share of common elements between different methodologies. The results demonstrate that the need for harmonization in methodology is greatest for erosion and compaction and least for SOM decline and landslides. However, many of the methodologies which were investigated are still incomplete and there are significant differences in terms of: (i) understanding the threats, (ii) methods of data collection, (iii) processing and interpretation and (iv) risk perception. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2010.00280.x Last Update: 05/07/2011

Derivation methods of soil screening values in Europe. A review and evaluation of national procedures towards harmonisation
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Derivation methods of soil screening values in Europe. A review and evaluation of national procedures towards harmonisation Soil Screening Values (SVs) are quality standards that are used to regulate contaminated sites. Derivation methods of SVs have scientific and political bases; they differ from country to country, and SVs numerical values vary consequently. In relation to the common environmental policies in Europe, this variability has raised concern among both regulators and risk assessors. Carlon, C. (Ed.) (2007). Derivation methods of soil screening values in Europe. A review and evaluation of national procedures towards harmonization. European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, EUR 22805-EN, 306 pp. ISBN: 978-92-79-05238-5, ISSN: 1018-5593 Download report: (Size: 2.2 MB) Preview FrontPage :

Soil loss rates due to piping erosion
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Soil loss rates due to piping erosion E. Verachtert, W. Maetens, M. Van Den Eeckhaut, J. Poesen, J. Deckers. Soil loss rates due to piping erosions (2011), EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Vol 36, No 13, pp 1715-1725 Compared with surface soil erosion by water, subsurface erosion (piping) is generally less studied and harder to quantify. However, wherever piping occurs, it is often a significant or even the main sediment source. In this study, the significance of soil loss due to piping is demonstrated through an estimation of soil volume lost from pipes and pipe collapses (n=560) in 137 parcels under pasture on loess-derived soils in a temperate humid climate (Belgium). Assuming a period of 5 to 10years for pipe collapse to occur, mean soil loss rates of 2.3 and 4.6t ha-1 yr-1 are obtained, which are at least one order of magnitude higher than surface erosion rates (0.01-0.29t ha-1 yr-1) by sheet and rill erosion under a similar land use. The results obtained for the study area in the Flemish Ardennes correspond well to other measurements in temperate environments; they are, however, considerably smaller than soil loss rates due to subsurface erosion in semi-arid environments. Although local slope gradient and drainage area largely control the location of collapsed pipes in the study area, these topographic parameters do not explain differences in eroded volumes by piping. Hence, incorporation of subsurface erosion in erosion models is not straightforward. Access the paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/esp.2186/abstract Last Update: 05/09/2012

Addressing soil degradation in EU agriculture: relevant processes, practices and policies.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Addressing soil degradation in EU agriculture: relevant processes, practices and policies. Report on the project 'Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation (SoCo)' Agriculture occupies a substantial proportion of the European land, and consequently plays an important role in maintaining natural resources and cultural landscapes, a precondition for other human activities in rural areas. Unsustainable farming practices and land use, including mismanaged intensification as well as land abandonment, have an adverse impact on natural resources. Having recognised the environmental challenges of agricultural land use, the European Parliament requested the European Commission in 2007 to carry out a pilot project on 'Sustainable Agriculture and Soil Conservation through simplified cultivation techniques' (SoCo). The project originated from a close cooperation between the Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development (DG AGRI) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC). It was implemented by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) and the Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES). Authors: SoCo Project Team, Editors: Geertrui Louwagie, Stephan Hubertus Gay, Alison Burrell.Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.– 332 pp., EUR – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-13358-1, DOI 10.2791/69723 Download report: (Size: 18 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 13/08/2009

Base de donneés géoréférencée des sols pour l’Europe, Manuel de Procédures Version. 1.1.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Edité par le Bureau Europeen des Sols. Version française de J.J. Lambert. EUR 18092 FR, 174pp. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Data Update and Model Revision for Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured Parameters (SPADE/M2)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Data Update and Model Revision for Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured Parameters (SPADE/M2) The Soil Profile Analytical Database of Europe of Measured parameters (SPADE/M) is part of the distribution package of the Soil Geographic Database of Eurasia (SGDBE). Typical combinations of profile parameters and morphological characteristics of the sample site were intended to support the definition of generalized rules for estimating pedological and hydrological properties of the pedo-transfer rule (PTR) database of the SGDBE. In 2005 the data of the SGDBE were transferred to a common data storage structure. In 2008 original hard-copies on profile measurements were re-discovered at the National Soil Resources Institute, Cranfield University (NSRI). To make the original data more generally available the profiles were added to the existing database. This step required changes to the structure of the database and a validation of the all entries for accurate and reliable data storage and retrieval. Author(s): R. Hiederer. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities , 2010 – 55 pp. – EUR 24333 – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-15646-5, DOI 10.2788/85262 Keywords: Soil Profiles, SPADE, pedo-transfer rule, European Soil Database Download report: (Size: 1.0 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 26/04/2010

European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM) - Metadata of the Soil Maps of Latin America and Caribbean islands
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM) - Metadata of the Soil Maps of Latin America and Caribbean islands European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM) - Metadata of the Soil Maps of Latin America and Caribbean islands. EUR 21821 EN 219pp. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. Selvaradjou, S-K., Montanarella, L., Spaargaren, O., Dent, D., Filippi, N. and Reuter, H.I. (2005). Download report: (Size: 1.8 MB) Preview FrontPage :

A Geographical Knowledge Database on Soil Properties for Environmental Studies
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

A Geographical Knowledge Database on Soil Properties for Environmental Studies Final Report of EC Contract No. 3392004 November 1994 DGXI, Brussels. King, D. ; Jamagne, M. ; Daroussin, J. ; Vanmechelen, L. ; Van Ranst, E.; Hollis, J.M. ; Thomasson, A.J. ; Jones,R.J.A. ; Le Bas C. ; Ngongo L. This report presents a method to translate data stored in the SGDB database to data needed for environmental purposes. This method is based on the concept of pedotransfer function. Due to the qualitative nature of the SGDB data, these functions are simple tables and are called pedotranfer rules. Download report: Size: 7.4 MB) Preview FrontPage :

Distribuzione spaziale delle concentrazioni di metalli pesanti e radio-elementi nei suoli del Sito di Ispra
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Distribuzione spaziale delle concentrazioni di metalli pesanti e radio-elementi nei suoli del Sito di Ispra Spatial distribution of heavy metals concentrations and radio active elemnents in Ispra site. EUR 19799 IT, 17pp. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg (2001). R.M. Cenci, F. Leva, F. D’Alberti, M. Dapiaggi, A. Geronimi e N. Plooy. Download report: (Size: 2.5 MB) Preview FrontPage :

A logistic regression method for mapping the As hazard risk in shallow, reducing groundwaters in Cambodia.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

A logistic regression method for mapping the As hazard risk in shallow, reducing groundwaters in Cambodia. L. Rodríguez Lado, D. A. Polya and A. Hegan. Mineralogical Magazine; February 2008; v. 72; no. 1; p. 437-440; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2008.072.1.437 We combined statistical analyses and GIS capabilities within the statistical environment R to create a semi-automated method for the assessment of As hazard risk in shallow groundwater in Cambodia. Arsenic concentration data for groundwaters of between 16 and 100 m depth were obtained from 1437 geo-referenced wells. We created a binary logistic regression model with these As measurements as the dependent variable and a number of raster maps (DEM-parameters, remote sensing images and geomorphology) as explanatory variables, and considering an As threshold of 10 ppb. This allowed us to make an As hazard map for groundwaters between 16–100 m depth: this can be used to help to identify populations vulnerable to exposure. Keywords: groundwater modelling, logistic regression, risk assessment, DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2008.072.1.437 Access the paper or contact the Author

An Analysis of the Land Use Sustainability Index (LUSI) at Territorial Scale Based on Corine Land Cover.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

An Analysis of the Land Use Sustainability Index (LUSI) at Territorial Scale Based on Corine Land Cover. Gardi C, Bosco C, Rusco E, Montanarella L. An Analysis of the Land Use Sustainability Index (LUSI) at Territorial Scale Based on Corine Land Cover . Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 21 (5); 2010. p. 680-694. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology based on the use of a simple and accessible database, such as Corine Land Cover (CLC), for providing an in depth evaluation of environmental sustainability. This evaluation has been carried out through the analysis of factors such as landscape and habitat composition, the level of biodiversity, the degree of anthropisation and soil sealing and the arable land availability. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14777831011067953 Last Update: 05/07/2011

Characterisation of productivity limitation of salt-affected lands in different climatic regions of Europe using remote sensing derived productivity indicators
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Characterisation of productivity limitation of salt-affected lands in different climatic regions of Europe using remote sensing derived productivity indicators E. Ivits, M. Cherlet, T. Tóth, K. E. Lewinska, G. Tóth. Characterisation of productivity limitation of salt-affected lands in different climatic regions of Europe using remote sensing derived productivity indicators (2011), LAND DEGRADATION & DEVELOPMENT , pp. 1-15. Soil salinity is a global issue and one of the major causes of land degradation. The large scale monitoring of salt affected areas is therefore very important to shed light of rehabilitation measures and to avoid further land degradation. We address the productivity limitation of salt affected soils across the European continent by the usage of soil maps and high temporal resolution time series of satellite images derived from the SPOT VEGETATION sensor. Using the yearly dynamism of the vegetation signal derived from the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) we decomposed the spectral curve into its Base Fraction and Seasonal Dynamism fractions next to an index approximating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). We observe GPP, Base Fraction and Seasonal Dynamism productivity differences of saline, sodic and not salt affected soils under croplands and grasslands in four major climatic zones of the European continent. ANOVA models and post-hoc tests of mean productivity values indicate significant productivity differences between the observed salt affected and salt free areas, between management levels of soils as well as between the saline and sodic character of the land. The analysis gives insight into the limiting effect of climate in relation to the productivity of soil affected soils. Access the paper: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ldr.1140/abstract/ Last Update: 05/09/2012