Documents

Over the years, the JRC has produced many publications. These are found in this section. They have been sub-divided in various categories (see Subcategory buttons below). All more than 440 documents can also be inspected irrespective of the category (see 'All documents' below).

Publications in Journals include more than 280 published papers from the Soil Group in the JRC. Most of the papers refer to the last 7 years (2013-2020). In many cases the papers document the datasets published in ESDAC. Almost all the publications are Open Access. 

 

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Lessons Learnt from Landslide Disasters in Europe
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Lessons Learnt from Landslide Disasters in Europe Landslides are a widespread hazard in many mountainous and hilly regions of Europe. They cause significant economic losses as well as human victims. The socio-economic impact is however difficult to quantify at European scale, mainly because it is usually not considered separately when landslides acompany other natural hazards such as floods or earthquakes. Hervás, J. (Ed.), 2003. Lessons Learnt from Landslide Disasters in Europe. EUR 20558 EN, European Commission, Ispra, Italy, 91 p. Download report: (Size: 4.3 MB) Preview FrontPage :

Towards protecting soil biodiversity in Europe: The EU thematic strategy for soil protection.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Towards protecting soil biodiversity in Europe: The EU thematic strategy for soil protection. Luca Montanarella. Biodiversity: Journal of Life on Earth. Volume 9 , Numbers 1 & 2, pp 75-77(2008) The new EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection will include a strong reference to soil biodiversity as a key soil component that needs preserving. Since available knowledge on soil biodiversity is recognised as being very limited, the main effort of the strategy will be in stimulating new research programmes for the improved understanding of soil biota. Related to this will be the increased development of soil quality indicators taking into account the biological function of soils. A full range of potential bio-indicators for soil health and soil function is available but needs to be fully explored for operational soil monitoring activities. Existing soil biodiversity monitoring initiatives and the first results of on-going European research programmes are presented and reviewed. Access the paper

Soil Contamination with PCDD/Fs as a Function of different types of land use in a semi-rural region in Northern Italy
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Soil Contamination with PCDD/Fs as a Function of different types of land use in a semi-rural region in Northern Italy Vives I, Umlauf G, Christoph EH, Mariani G, Ghiani M, Skejo H, Cenci R, Bidoglio G Organohalogen Compounds Vol 68 (2006) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are, among others, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. They are released into the environment from many sources, such as municipal and industrial waste incineration, automobile exhaust, and as unwanted byproducts, in various chlorinated chemical formulations Look for the article: Organohalogen Compounds Vol 68 (2006), Pages 1034 - 1038

Il Suolo della Provincia di Pavia (Volume II)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Il Suolo della Provincia di Pavia (Volume II) Valutazione della concentrazione di composti organici ed inorganici persistenti attraverso lo sviluppo di una rete di monitoraggio del suolo. This document is the second Volume of the Report "Il Suolo della Provincia di Pavia Volume I" (No 33). EUR22132 (Volume II) IT, 86pp. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg (2007). Roberto M. Cenci and Fabrizio Sena. Download report: (Size: 7.7 MB) Preview FrontPage :

The European soil database
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

The European soil database Panagos, P., 2006. The European soil database Geo: International , July/Aug 2006 Volume 5 · Issue 7: 32-33 Pan-European in scope, this database provides a consistent view and understanding of the soil we depend upon for living. Look for the article: GeoConnexion: Spatial data & landuse

Soil Biodiversity
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Soil Biodiversity What is biodiversity? Biodiversity has different meanings depending on the situation being discussed and the target audience. For example, the Oxford English Dictionary defines biodiversity as being. The variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat. This is definition is clearly sufficient for non-specialists. However, when looking more specifically at biodiversity, it becomes evident that thought needs to be given to other groups such as fungi, bacteria and archea. As soil is such as diverse system when considered biologically (as well as physically or chemically) it is necessary to include all taxonomic groups. Therefore, throughout this booklet, when referring to soil biodiversity it will be in reference to the variety of all living organisms found within the soil system. Ciro Gardi and Simon Jeffery EUR23759EN, ISBN 978-92-79-11289-8, ISSN 1018-5593, DOI 10.2788/7831 , Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2009. Download report: (Size: 4 MB) Preview FrontPage :

European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM) - Soil Maps of Asia
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

European Digital Archive of Soil Maps (EuDASM) - Soil Maps of Asia : DVD-ROM version. EUR 21823. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. Selvaradjou, S-K., Montanarella, L., Spaargaren. O. and Dent. D. (2005).

Landscape and Mitigation Factors in Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Landscape and Mitigation Factors in Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment Holmes, A. Huber, F. de Jong, M. Liess, S. Loutseti, N. Mackay, W-M. Maier, S. Maund, C., Pais, W. Reinert, M. Russell, T. Schad, R. Stadler, M. Streloke, M. Styczen, J. van de Zande (2007) Landscape and Mitigation Factors in Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment. Download Volume I: (Size: 3.2 MB) - Extended Summary and Recommendations. Final Report of the FOCUS Working Group on Landscape and Mitigation Factors in Ecological Risk Assessment. EC Document Reference SANCO/10422/2005 v2.0. 169 pp. Brown, C., A. Alix, J-L Alonso-Prados, D. Auteri, J-J Gril, R. Hiederer, C. Holmes, A. Huber, F. de Jong, M. Liess, S. Loutseti, N. Mackay, W-M. Maier, S. Maund, C., Pais, W. Reinert, M. Russell, T. Schad, R. Stadler, M. Streloke, M. Styczen, J. van de Zande (2007) Landscape and Mitigation Factors in Aquatic Ecological Risk Assessment. Download Volume II: (size 4.5 MB) - Detailed Technical Reviews. Final Report of the FOCUS Working Group on Landscape and Mitigation Factors in Ecological Risk Assessment. EC Document Reference SANCO/10422/2005 v2.0. 436 pp.

A New European Slope Length and Steepness Factor (LS-Factor) for Modeling Soil Erosion by Water
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model is the most frequently used model for soil erosion risk estimation. Among the six input layers, the combined slope length and slope angle (LS-factor) has the greatest influence on soil loss at the European scale. The S-factor measures the effect of slope steepness, and the L-factor defines the impact of slope length. The combined LS-factor describes the effect of topography on soil erosion. The European Soil Data Centre (ESDAC) developed a new pan-European high-resolution soil erosion assessment to achieve a better understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion in Europe. The LS-calculation was performed using the original equation proposed by Desmet and Govers (1996) and implemented using the System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA), which incorporates a multiple flow algorithm and contributes to a precise estimation of flow accumulation. The LS-factor dataset was calculated using a high-resolution (25 m) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for the whole European Union, resulting in an improved delineation of areas at risk of soil erosion as compared to lower-resolution datasets. This combined approach of using GIS software tools with high-resolution DEMs has been successfully applied in regional assessments in the past, and is now being applied for first time at the European scale.

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3263/5/2/117

Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France).
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France). Den Eeckhaut M.V., Marre A., Poesen J. Comparison of two landslide susceptibility assessments in the Champagne-Ardenne region (France) (2010) Geomorphology, 115 (1-2), pp. 141-155. The vineyards of the Montagne de Reims are mostly planted on steep south-oriented cuesta fronts receiving a maximum of sun radiation. Due to the location of the vineyards on steep hillslopes, the viticultural activity is threatened by slope failures. This study attempts to better understand the spatial patterns of landslide susceptibility in the Champagne–Ardenne region by comparing a heuristic (qualitative) and a statistical (quantitative) model in a 1120 km² study area. The heuristic landslide susceptibility model was adopted from the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières, the GEGEAA – Reims University and the Comité Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne. In this model, expert knowledge of the region was used to assign weights to all slope classes and lithologies present in the area, but the final susceptibility map was never evaluated with the location of mapped landslides. For the statistical landslide susceptibility assessment, logistic regression was applied to a dataset of 291 'old' (Holocene) landslides. The robustness of the logistic regression model was evaluated and ROC curves were used for model calibration and validation. Access the paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.09.042 Last Update: 05/07/2011

Risk Assessment Methodologies of Soil Threats in Europe
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Risk Assessment Methodologies of Soil Threats in Europe This report which presents the results of the RAMSOIL project is published. The general objective of the RAMSOIL project was to provide scientific guidelines on possibilities for EU wide parameter harmonization based on detailed information on current risk assessment methodologies of soil threats encountered within EU Member States. In RAMSOIL current risk assessments methodologies used in the EU are collected and evaluated. The results are summarized in this book. Currently, there are various risk assessment methodologies (RAMs) and the question has risen to what extent these RAMs yield similar outcome and, if not, whether the outcome can be harmonized, i.e. whether the results of the various RAMs can be made compatible or comparable. In this study i) the current status of RAMs for erosion, soil organic matter decline, compaction, and salinization in the European Union (EU27) is reviewed, and ii) the need and the options for harmonization are assessed. The need for harmonization was defined as the likelihood of achieving different outcomes when using different RAMs, whereas the options for harmonization refer to the efforts that are required to harmonize soil RAMs. Author(s):Christy van Beek and Gergely Tóth 2012 – 84pp. – EUR 24097 EN – EUR – Scientific and Technical Research series – ISSN 1018-5593 (print), ISSN 1831-9424 (online) , ISBN 978-92-79-14291-8, doi: 10.2788/47096 Download report: (Size: 1.5 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 10/05/2012

Reply to the comment on "Rainfall Erosivity in Europe" by Auerswald et al.
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015
Recently, in the Auerswald et al. (2015) comment on “Rainfall erosivity in Europe”, 5 criticisms were addressed: i) the neglect of seasonal erosion indices, ii) the neglect of published studies and data, iii) the low temporal resolution of the data, especially of the maximum rain intensity, iv) the use of precipitation data instead of rain data and the subsequent deviation of the R-factor in Germany and Austria compared with previous studies, and v) the differences in considered time periods between countries. We reply as follows:
 
(i) An evaluation of the seasonal erosion index at the European scale is, to our knowledge, not achievable at present with the available data but would be a future goal. Synchronous publication of the seasonal erosion index is not mandatory, specifically because seasonal soil loss ratios are not available at this scale to date. We are looking forward to the appropriate study by the authors of the comment, who assert that they have access to the required data.
 
(ii) We discuss and evaluate relevant studies in our original work and in this reply; however, we cannot consider what is not available to the scientific community.
 
(iii) The third point of critique was based on a misunderstanding by Auerswald et al. (2015), as we did indeed calculate the maximum intensity with the highest resolution of data available.
 
(iv) The low R-factor values in Germany and the higher values in Austria compared with previous studies are not due to the involvement of snow but are rather due to a Pan-European interpolation. We argue that an interpolation across the borders of Austria creates a more reliable data set.
 
(v) We agree that the use of a short time series or time series from different periods is generally a problem in all large-scale studies and requires improvement in the future. However, because this affects countries with a rather low variability of the R-factor in our study, we are confident that the overall results of the map are not biased.
 
In conclusion, the Pan-European rainfall data compilation (REDES) was a great success and yielded data from 1541 stations with an average length of 17.1 years and a temporal resolution of < 60 min. However, a Pan-European data collection will never be complete without the help and supply of data from its users. Thus, we invite the authors of the comment to share their data in the open REDES to help build even better rainfall-erosivity maps at regional or European scales.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715300784

Soil Resources of Europe, Second edition
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, ESBN Research Reports
Year: 2015

Soil Resources of Europe, Second edition R.J.A. Jones, B. Houskova, P. Bullock and L. Montanarella. EUR 20559 EN, 420 pp (2005). This volume provides the most comprehensive summary yet attempted of the current position regarding the detail and availability of soil information, particularly spatial data, at national and European levels. Download PDF document: ( Size: 30 MB) or ZIP version , Navigate the Contents: Preview FrontPage:

Assessing the vulnerability of subsoils in Europe to compaction: a preliminary analysis.
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

JONES, R.J.A., SPOOR, G. and THOMASSON, A.J. (2003). Soil & Tillage Research 73, 131-143.

Object-oriented Identification of Forested Landslides with Derivatives of Single Pulse LiDAR Data
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Object-oriented Identification of Forested Landslides with Derivatives of Single Pulse LiDAR Data Van Den Eeckhaut M., Kerle N., Poesen J., Hervas J. Object-oriented identification of forested landslides with derivatives of single pulse LiDAR data (2012) Geomorphology, 173-174 , pp. 30-42. In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives for landslide mapping in forested terrain, only few studies have attempted to develop (semi-)automatic methods for extracting landslides from LiDAR derivatives. While all these studies are pixel-based, it has not yet been tested whether object-oriented analysis (OOA) could be an alternative. This study investigates the potential of OOA using only single pulse LiDAR derivatives, such as slope gradient, roughness and curvature to map landslides. More specifically, the focus is on both LiDAR data segmentation and classification of slow-moving landslides in densely vegetated areas, where spectral data do not allow accurate landslide identification. A multistage procedure has been developed and tested in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). The procedure consists of (1) image binarization and multiresolution segmentation, (2) classification of landslide parts (main scarps and landslide body segments) and non-landslide features (i.e. earth banks and cropland fields) with supervised support vector machines at the appropriate scale, (3) delineation of landslide flanks, (4) growing of a landslide body starting from its main scarp, and (5) final cleaning of the inventory map. The results obtained show that OOA using LiDAR derivatives allows recognition and characterization of profound morphologic properties of forested deep-seated landslides on soil-covered hillslopes, because more than 90% of the main scarps and 70% of the landslide bodies of an expert-based inventory were accurately identified with OOA. For mountainous areas with bedrock, on the other hand, creation of a transferable model is expected to be more difficult. Access the paper: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169555X12002620 Last Update: 02/09/2013

Validation of the EU Soil Sampling Protocol to verify the changes of Organic Carbon stock in mineral soil (Piemonte Region, Italy)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Validation of the EU Soil Sampling Protocol to verify the changes of Organic Carbon stock in mineral soil (Piemonte Region, Italy) Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a measure of the total amount of organic compounds or carbon (C) in soil independently of their origin or decomposition. Interest in SOC is common among soil scientists and related practitioners because of its importance for principle physical, chemical and biological soil ecological functions and that SOC is a universal indicator of soil quality. EUR 22339 EN, 46pp. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg. Stolbovoy Vladimir, Nicola Filippi, Luca Montanarella, Mauro Piazzi, Fabio Petrella, Javier Gallego, Senthil-Kumar Selvaradjou Download report: (Size: 1.9 MB) Preview FrontPage :

Soil carbon,multiple benefits
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

In March 2013, 40 leading experts from across the world gathered at a workshop, hosted by the European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre, Italy, to discuss the multiple benefits of soil carbon as part of a Rapid Assessment Process (RAP) project commissioned by Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE). This collaboration led to the publication of the SCOPE Series Volume 71 “Soil Carbon: Science, Management and Policy for Multiple Benefits”; which brings together the essential scientific evidence and policy opportunities regarding the global importance of soil carbon. This short communication summarises the key messages of the assessment including research and policy implications.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211464514000864

Soil Erosion in the Alpine Area: Risk Assessment and Climate Change.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Soil Erosion in the Alpine Area: Risk Assessment and Climate Change. Bosco C, Rusco E, Montanarella L, Panagos P. Soil Erosion in the Alpine Area: Risk Assessment and Climate Change. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali 85; 2009. p. 117-123 Objective of the research is to define the magnitude of the Actual Soil Erosion Risk in the alpine area and linked it with a perspective of medium long terms in relation to climate change. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was applied to the whole alpine space. It allowed to produce, with a spatial resolution of 100 m, the map of actual soil erosion and two further maps defining soil erosion rates in IPCC A2 and B2 scenarios. This analysis was carried out by means of the dataset the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) of Trieste made us available. It provides daily rainfall values for the years 1960 - 1990 and for the IPCC A2 and B2 scenario 2070 - 2100. From a comparison between actual erosion and soil losses in A2 and B2 scenarios it comes out that our model does not show relevant raises in erosion rates. Download the paper Last Update: 26/04/2010

Soils, Society & Global Change
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

Soils, Society & Global Change This book highlights how our ability to manage soils plays an important role in global challenges such as climate change, biodiversity reduction, food and water security, and economic and social progress. It explores policy and legal challenges, knowledge management issues, and the crucial role of soil in the successful implementation of the global environmental conventions. The book concludes with the Programme for Action which includes a number of proactive recommendations on how global policies can be improved to protect soil as a resource. The context for this book is the 2007 centennial celebrations of organized conservation and restoration of soil and vegetation in Iceland. As Europe’s northernmost nation, Iceland historically suffered acute land degradation problems and through a century of perseverance has now become a world leader in soil restoration research and techniques. A number of international partners and world-class experts on a variety of pertinent fields gathered in Selfoss, Iceland to join in an International Forum. This book outlines the groundbreaking ideas developed by these experts to address the global soil problems and innovative ways to address the combined challenges of soil, society and global change. Proceedings of the International Forum Celebrating the Centenary of Conservation and Restoration of Soil and Vegetation in Iceland Edited by Harriet Bigas, Gudmundur Ingi Gudbrandsson, Luca Montanarella and Andrés Arnalds. European Communities, pp 212, 2009. JRC50243, EUR 23784 EN, Catalogue number: LB-NA-23784-EN-C , ISSN: 1018-5593, ISBN 978-92-79-11775-6, DOI: 10.2788/84964 Download report: (Size: 10 MB) Preview FrontPage : Last Update: 30/06/2009

Global Soil Organic Carbon Assessment
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015

Soil carbon is a key component of functional ecosystems and crucial for food, soil, water and energy security. Climate change and altered land-use are having a great impact on soils. The influence of these factors creates a dynamic feedback between soil and the environment. There is a crucial need to evaluate the responses of soil to global environmental change at large spatial scales that occur along natural environmental gradients over decadal timescales. This work provides a suite of new data on global soil change which will uniquely utilize the world’s prior investment in soil data infrastructure. Here we attempt a comprehensive global space–time assessment of soil carbon dynamics in different ecoregions of the world accounting for impacts of climate change and other environmental factors..

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912415000231

Assessing consequences of land cover changes on sediment deliveries to coastal waters at regional level over the last two decades in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea
Resource Type: Documents, Publications in Journals, Maps & Documents
Year: 2015
Human-induced changes to land cover and associated strong influence such changes have on sediment delivery to coastal waters are a well-recognized threat to nearshore marine habitats worldwide. Land cover has been commonly used as a proxy to document human alterations on sediment discharges. In the present study, changes in sediment delivery to coastal waters along the coastline of the Ligurian Sea (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) were estimated on the basis of land cover data. This area includes benthic habitats-areas that are very sensitive to water turbidity and sedimentation increase -and warrant protection demonstrated by the establishment of five marine Sites of Community Importance and a Marine Protected Area (Portofino MPA). The principal objectives of the study were to identify changes in soil erosion in multiple basins and estimate the strength of the change over a defined period of time in sediment delivery at the outflow. A combination of Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) was applied. The strongest changes happened individually in two different basins in the periods 1990–2000 and 2006–2012 meanwhile the period 2000–2006 showed several changes in several basins with less estimated change. This assessment can help to make better coastal-land management decisions for managing or restoring coastal marine ecosystems.
 

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115300211

Soil Information and Education for a Sustainable Management: The Soil Atlas of Africa.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Conference Publications
Year: 2015

Soil Information and Education for a Sustainable Management: The Soil Atlas of Africa. Dewitte O, Jones A, Montanarella L. Soil Information and Education for a Sustainable Management: The Soil Atlas of Africa. Oral presentation in: African Soil Science Society 5th International Conference, Yaounde, Cameroon, 22-28 November 2009, Yaounde; 22 November 2009; Yaounde (Cameroon); African Soil Science Society (Organiser). 2009 The richness of African soil resources need to be protected for future generations. A number of threats are affecting the functioning of African soils, not only for the purpose of agricultural production, but also for other important environmental services that soil delivers to all of us. The Soil Atlas of Africa is an international project involving the Institute for Environment and Sustainability of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, ISRIC, World Soil Information, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Land and Water Development Division) and scientists from the European Soil Bureau Network and the Africa Soil Science Society. The Atlas will compile existing information on different soil types in easily understandable maps (both at national to continental scale) covering the entire Africa. Download the Article: Soil Information and Education for a Sustainable Management: The Soil Atlas of Africa. Last Update: 26/04/2010

Modelling arsenic hazard in Cambodia: A geostatistical approach using ancillary data.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

Modelling arsenic hazard in Cambodia: A geostatistical approach using ancillary data. Luis Rodríguez Lado, David Polya, Lenny Winkel, Michael Berg and Aimee Hegan. Applied Geochemistry, Volume 23, Issue 11, November 2008, Pages 3010-3018. The As concentration in shallow groundwater in Cambodia was estimated using 1329 georeferenced water samples collected during the period 1999–2004 from wells between 16–100 m depth. Arsenic concentrations were estimated using block regression-kriging on the log transformed As measurements. Auxiliary raster maps (DEM-parameters, remote sensing images and geology) were converted to 16 principal components that were used to explain the distribution of As over the study area. The regression-kriging model was validated using an external set of 276 samples, and the results were compared to those obtained by ordinary block kriging. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2008.06.028 Access the paper or contact the Author

An evaluation of void-filling interpolation methods for SRTM data.
Resource Type: Maps & Documents, Documents, Publications in Journals
Year: 2015

An evaluation of void-filling interpolation methods for SRTM data. H. I. Reuter; A. Nelson; A. Jarvis , 2007. Published by International Journal of Geographical Information Science, Volume 21, Issue 9 January 2007 , pages 983 - 1008. The Digital Elevation Model that has been derived from the February 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) has been one of the most important publicly available new spatial data sets in recent years. However, the 'finished' grade version of the data (also referred to as Version 2) still contains data voids (some 836,000 km2) - and other anomalies - that prevent immediate use in many applications. Keywords: DEM; Interpolation methods; Void filling; DEM fusion. Access the paper

The European Soil Database (distribution version 2)
Resource Type: Scientific-Technical Reports
Year: 2015

European Soil Bureau